art.estimators.speech_recognition
¶
Module containing estimators for speech recognition.
Mixin Base Class Speech Recognizer¶

class
art.estimators.speech_recognition.
SpeechRecognizerMixin
¶ Mixin Base class for ART speech recognizers.
Speech Recognizer Deep Speech  PyTorch¶

class
art.estimators.speech_recognition.
PyTorchDeepSpeech
(model: Optional[DeepSpeech] = None, pretrained_model: Optional[str] = None, filename: Optional[str] = None, url: Optional[str] = None, use_half: bool = False, optimizer: Optional[torch.optim.Optimizer] = None, use_amp: bool = False, opt_level: str = 'O1', decoder_type: str = 'greedy', lm_path: str = '', top_paths: int = 1, alpha: float = 0.0, beta: float = 0.0, cutoff_top_n: int = 40, cutoff_prob: float = 1.0, beam_width: int = 10, lm_workers: int = 4, clip_values: Optional[CLIP_VALUES_TYPE] = None, preprocessing_defences: Optional[Union[Preprocessor, List[Preprocessor]]] = None, postprocessing_defences: Optional[Union[Postprocessor, List[Postprocessor]]] = None, preprocessing: PREPROCESSING_TYPE = None, device_type: str = 'gpu', verbose: bool = True)¶ This class implements a modelspecific automatic speech recognizer using the endtoend speech recognizer DeepSpeech and PyTorch.
Paper link: https://arxiv.org/abs/1512.02595
__init__
(model: Optional[DeepSpeech] = None, pretrained_model: Optional[str] = None, filename: Optional[str] = None, url: Optional[str] = None, use_half: bool = False, optimizer: Optional[torch.optim.Optimizer] = None, use_amp: bool = False, opt_level: str = 'O1', decoder_type: str = 'greedy', lm_path: str = '', top_paths: int = 1, alpha: float = 0.0, beta: float = 0.0, cutoff_top_n: int = 40, cutoff_prob: float = 1.0, beam_width: int = 10, lm_workers: int = 4, clip_values: Optional[CLIP_VALUES_TYPE] = None, preprocessing_defences: Optional[Union[Preprocessor, List[Preprocessor]]] = None, postprocessing_defences: Optional[Union[Postprocessor, List[Postprocessor]]] = None, preprocessing: PREPROCESSING_TYPE = None, device_type: str = 'gpu', verbose: bool = True)¶ Initialization of an instance PyTorchDeepSpeech.
 Parameters
model – DeepSpeech model.
pretrained_model – The choice of pretrained model if a pretrained model is required. Currently this estimator supports 3 different pretrained models consisting of an4, librispeech and tedlium.
filename – Name of the file.
url – Download URL.
use_half (
bool
) – Whether to use FP16 for pretrained model.optimizer – The optimizer used to train the estimator.
use_amp (
bool
) – Whether to use the automatic mixed precision tool to enable mixed precision training or gradient computation, e.g. with loss gradient computation. When set to True, this option is only triggered if there are GPUs available.opt_level (
str
) – Specify a pure or mixed precision optimization level. Used when use_amp is True. Accepted values are O0, O1, O2, and O3.decoder_type (
str
) – Decoder type. Either greedy or beam. This parameter is only used when users want transcription outputs.lm_path (
str
) – Path to an (optional) kenlm language model for use with beam search. This parameter is only used when users want transcription outputs.top_paths (
int
) – Number of beams to be returned. This parameter is only used when users want transcription outputs.alpha (
float
) – The weight used for the language model. This parameter is only used when users want transcription outputs.beta (
float
) – Language model word bonus (all words). This parameter is only used when users want transcription outputs.cutoff_top_n (
int
) – Cutoff_top_n characters with highest probs in vocabulary will be used in beam search. This parameter is only used when users want transcription outputs.cutoff_prob (
float
) – Cutoff probability in pruning. This parameter is only used when users want transcription outputs.beam_width (
int
) – The width of beam to be used. This parameter is only used when users want transcription outputs.lm_workers (
int
) – Number of language model processes to use. This parameter is only used when users want transcription outputs.clip_values – Tuple of the form (min, max) of floats or np.ndarray representing the minimum and maximum values allowed for features. If floats are provided, these will be used as the range of all features. If arrays are provided, each value will be considered the bound for a feature, thus the shape of clip values needs to match the total number of features.
preprocessing_defences – Preprocessing defence(s) to be applied by the estimator.
postprocessing_defences – Postprocessing defence(s) to be applied by the estimator.
preprocessing – Tuple of the form (subtrahend, divisor) of floats or np.ndarray of values to be used for data preprocessing. The first value will be subtracted from the input. The input will then be divided by the second one.
device_type (
str
) – Type of device to be used for model and tensors, if cpu run on CPU, if gpu run on GPU if available otherwise run on CPU.

property
channels_first
¶  Returns
Boolean to indicate index of the color channels in the sample x.

property
clip_values
¶ Return the clip values of the input samples.
 Returns
Clip values (min, max).

compute_loss
(x: numpy.ndarray, y: numpy.ndarray, **kwargs) → numpy.ndarray¶ Compute the loss of the neural network for samples x.
 Parameters
x (
ndarray
) – Samples of shape (nb_samples, nb_features) or (nb_samples, nb_pixels_1, nb_pixels_2, nb_channels) or (nb_samples, nb_channels, nb_pixels_1, nb_pixels_2).y (
ndarray
) – Target values (class labels) onehotencoded of shape (nb_samples, nb_classes) or indices of shape (nb_samples,).
 Returns
Loss values.
 Return type
Format as expected by the model

property
device
¶ Get current used device.
 Returns
Current used device.

property
device_type
¶ Return the type of device on which the estimator is run.
 Returns
Type of device on which the estimator is run, either gpu or cpu.

fit
(x: numpy.ndarray, y: numpy.ndarray, batch_size: int = 128, nb_epochs: int = 10, **kwargs) → None¶ Fit the estimator on the training set (x, y).
 Parameters
x (
ndarray
) – Samples of shape (nb_samples, seq_length). Note that, it is allowable that sequences in the batch could have different lengths. A possible example of x could be: x = np.array([np.array([0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.4]), np.array([0.3, 0.1])]).y (
ndarray
) – Target values of shape (nb_samples). Each sample in y is a string and it may possess different lengths. A possible example of y could be: y = np.array([‘SIXTY ONE’, ‘HELLO’]).batch_size (
int
) – Size of batches.nb_epochs (
int
) – Number of epochs to use for training.kwargs – Dictionary of frameworkspecific arguments. This parameter is not currently supported for PyTorch and providing it takes no effect.

fit_generator
(generator: DataGenerator, nb_epochs: int = 20, **kwargs) → None¶ Fit the estimator using a generator yielding training batches. Implementations can provide frameworkspecific versions of this function to speedup computation.
 Parameters
generator – Batch generator providing (x, y) for each epoch.
nb_epochs (
int
) – Number of training epochs.

get_activations
(x: numpy.ndarray, layer: Union[int, str], batch_size: int, framework: bool = False) → numpy.ndarray¶ Return the output of a specific layer for samples x where layer is the index of the layer between 0 and nb_layers  1 or the name of the layer. The number of layers can be determined by counting the results returned by calling `layer_names.
 Return type
ndarray
 Parameters
x (
ndarray
) – Sampleslayer – Index or name of the layer.
batch_size (
int
) – Batch size.framework (
bool
) – If true, return the intermediate tensor representation of the activation.
 Returns
The output of layer, where the first dimension is the batch size corresponding to x.

get_params
() → Dict[str, Any]¶ Get all parameters and their values of this estimator.
 Returns
A dictionary of string parameter names to their value.

property
input_shape
¶ Return the shape of one input sample.
 Returns
Shape of one input sample.

property
layer_names
¶ Return the names of the hidden layers in the model, if applicable.
 Returns
The names of the hidden layers in the model, input and output layers are ignored.
Warning
layer_names tries to infer the internal structure of the model. This feature comes with no guarantees on the correctness of the result. The intended order of the layers tries to match their order in the model, but this is not guaranteed either.

loss_gradient
(x: numpy.ndarray, y: numpy.ndarray, **kwargs) → numpy.ndarray¶ Compute the gradient of the loss function w.r.t. x.
 Return type
ndarray
 Parameters
x (
ndarray
) – Samples of shape (nb_samples, seq_length). Note that, it is allowable that sequences in the batch could have different lengths. A possible example of x could be: x = np.array([np.array([0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.4]), np.array([0.3, 0.1])]).y (
ndarray
) – Target values of shape (nb_samples). Each sample in y is a string and it may possess different lengths. A possible example of y could be: y = np.array([‘SIXTY ONE’, ‘HELLO’]).
 Returns
Loss gradients of the same shape as x.

property
model
¶ Get current model.
 Returns
Current model.

property
opt_level
¶ Return a string specifying a pure or mixed precision optimization level.
 Returns
A string specifying a pure or mixed precision optimization level. Possible values are O0, O1, O2, and O3.

property
optimizer
¶ Return the optimizer.
 Returns
The optimizer.

predict
(x: numpy.ndarray, batch_size: int = 128, **kwargs) → Union[Tuple[numpy.ndarray, numpy.ndarray], numpy.ndarray]¶ Perform prediction for a batch of inputs.
 Parameters
x (
ndarray
) – Samples of shape (nb_samples, seq_length). Note that, it is allowable that sequences in the batch could have different lengths. A possible example of x could be: x = np.array([np.array([0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.4]), np.array([0.3, 0.1])]).batch_size (
int
) – Batch size.transcription_output – Indicate whether the function will produce probability or transcription as prediction output. If transcription_output is not available, then probability output is returned. Default: True
 Returns
Predicted probability (if transcription_output False) or transcription (default, if transcription_output is True):  Probability return is a tuple of (probs, sizes), where probs is the probability of characters of shape (nb_samples, seq_length, nb_classes) and sizes is the real sequence length of shape (nb_samples,).  Transcription return is a numpy array of characters. A possible example of a transcription return is np.array([‘SIXTY ONE’, ‘HELLO’]).

preprocess_transform_model_input
(x: torch.Tensor, y: numpy.ndarray, real_lengths: numpy.ndarray) → Tuple[torch.Tensor, torch.Tensor, torch.Tensor, torch.Tensor, List]¶ Apply preprocessing and then transform the user input space into the model input space. This function is used by the ASR attack to attack into the PyTorchDeepSpeech estimator whose defences are called with the _apply_preprocessing function.
 Return type
Tuple
 Parameters
x – Samples of shape (nb_samples, seq_length).
y (
ndarray
) – Target values of shape (nb_samples). Each sample in y is a string and it may possess different lengths. A possible example of y could be: y = np.array([‘SIXTY ONE’, ‘HELLO’]).real_lengths (
ndarray
) – Real lengths of original sequences.
 Returns
A tuple of inputs and targets in the model space with the original index (inputs, targets, input_percentages, target_sizes, batch_idx), where:  inputs: model inputs of shape (nb_samples, nb_frequencies, seq_length).  targets: ground truth targets of shape (sum over nb_samples of real seq_lengths).  input_percentages: percentages of real inputs in inputs.  target_sizes: list of real seq_lengths.  batch_idx: original index of inputs.

set_batchnorm
(train: bool) → None¶ Set all batch normalization layers into train or eval mode.
 Parameters
train (
bool
) – False for evaluation mode.

set_dropout
(train: bool) → None¶ Set all dropout layers into train or eval mode.
 Parameters
train (
bool
) – False for evaluation mode.

set_params
(**kwargs) → None¶ Take a dictionary of parameters and apply checks before setting them as attributes.
 Parameters
kwargs – A dictionary of attributes.

property
use_amp
¶ Return a boolean indicating whether to use the automatic mixed precision tool.
 Returns
Whether to use the automatic mixed precision tool.

Speech Recognizer Lingvo ASR  TensorFlow¶

class
art.estimators.speech_recognition.
TensorFlowLingvoASR
(clip_values: Optional[CLIP_VALUES_TYPE] = None, channels_first: Optional[bool] = None, preprocessing_defences: Optional[Union[Preprocessor, List[Preprocessor]]] = None, postprocessing_defences: Optional[Union[Postprocessor, List[Postprocessor]]] = None, preprocessing: PREPROCESSING_TYPE = None, random_seed: Optional[int] = None, sess: Optional[Session] = None)¶ This class implements the taskspecific Lingvo ASR model of Qin et al. (2019).
The estimator uses a pretrained model provided by Qin et al., which is trained using the Lingvo library and the LibriSpeech dataset.
Warning
In order to calculate loss gradients, this estimator requires a userpatched Lingvo module. A patched source file for the lingvo.tasks.asr.decoder module will be automatically applied. The original source file can be found in <PYTHON_SITE_PACKAGES>/lingvo/tasks/asr/decoder.py and will be patched as outlined in the following commit diff: https://github.com/yaq007/lingvo/commit/414e035b2c60372de732c9d67db14d1003be6dd6
The patched decoder_patched.py can be found in ART_DATA_PATH/lingvo/asr.
Note: Run python m site to obtain a list of possible candidates where to find the <PYTHON_SITE_PACKAGES folder.

__init__
(clip_values: Optional[CLIP_VALUES_TYPE] = None, channels_first: Optional[bool] = None, preprocessing_defences: Optional[Union[Preprocessor, List[Preprocessor]]] = None, postprocessing_defences: Optional[Union[Postprocessor, List[Postprocessor]]] = None, preprocessing: PREPROCESSING_TYPE = None, random_seed: Optional[int] = None, sess: Optional[Session] = None)¶ Initialization.
 Parameters
clip_values – Tuple of the form (min, max) of floats or np.ndarray representing the minimum and maximum values allowed for features. If floats are provided, these will be used as the range of all features. If arrays are provided, each value will be considered the bound for a feature, thus the shape of clip values needs to match the total number of features.
channels_first – Set channels first or last.
preprocessing_defences – Preprocessing defence(s) to be applied by the classifier.
postprocessing_defences – Postprocessing defence(s) to be applied by the classifier.
preprocessing – Tuple of the form (subtrahend, divisor) of floats or np.ndarray of values to be used for data preprocessing. The first value will be subtracted from the input. The input will then be divided by the second one.
random_seed – Specify a random seed.

property
channels_first
¶  Returns
Boolean to indicate index of the color channels in the sample x.

property
clip_values
¶ Return the clip values of the input samples.
 Returns
Clip values (min, max).

compute_loss
(x: numpy.ndarray, y: numpy.ndarray, **kwargs) → numpy.ndarray¶ Compute the loss of the neural network for samples x.
 Parameters
x (
ndarray
) – Samples of shape (nb_samples, nb_features) or (nb_samples, nb_pixels_1, nb_pixels_2, nb_channels) or (nb_samples, nb_channels, nb_pixels_1, nb_pixels_2).y (
ndarray
) – Target values (class labels) onehotencoded of shape (nb_samples, nb_classes) or indices of shape (nb_samples,).
 Returns
Loss values.
 Return type
Format as expected by the model

fit
(x: numpy.ndarray, y, batch_size: int = 128, nb_epochs: int = 20, **kwargs) → None¶ Fit the model of the estimator on the training data x and y.
 Parameters
x (
ndarray
) – Samples of shape (nb_samples, nb_features) or (nb_samples, nb_pixels_1, nb_pixels_2, nb_channels) or (nb_samples, nb_channels, nb_pixels_1, nb_pixels_2).y (Format as expected by the model) – Target values.
batch_size (
int
) – Batch size.nb_epochs (
int
) – Number of training epochs.

fit_generator
(generator: DataGenerator, nb_epochs: int = 20, **kwargs) → None¶ Fit the estimator using a generator yielding training batches. Implementations can provide frameworkspecific versions of this function to speedup computation.
 Parameters
generator – Batch generator providing (x, y) for each epoch.
nb_epochs (
int
) – Number of training epochs.

get_activations
(x: numpy.ndarray, layer: Union[int, str], batch_size: int, framework: bool = False) → numpy.ndarray¶ Return the output of a specific layer for samples x where layer is the index of the layer between 0 and nb_layers  1 or the name of the layer. The number of layers can be determined by counting the results returned by calling `layer_names.
 Return type
ndarray
 Parameters
x (
ndarray
) – Sampleslayer – Index or name of the layer.
batch_size (
int
) – Batch size.framework (
bool
) – If true, return the intermediate tensor representation of the activation.
 Returns
The output of layer, where the first dimension is the batch size corresponding to x.

get_params
() → Dict[str, Any]¶ Get all parameters and their values of this estimator.
 Returns
A dictionary of string parameter names to their value.

property
input_shape
¶ Return the shape of one input sample.
 Returns
Shape of one input sample.

property
layer_names
¶ Return the names of the hidden layers in the model, if applicable.
 Returns
The names of the hidden layers in the model, input and output layers are ignored.
Warning
layer_names tries to infer the internal structure of the model. This feature comes with no guarantees on the correctness of the result. The intended order of the layers tries to match their order in the model, but this is not guaranteed either.

loss_gradient
(x: numpy.ndarray, y: numpy.ndarray, batch_mode: bool = False, **kwargs) → numpy.ndarray¶ Compute the gradient of the loss function w.r.t. x.
 Return type
ndarray
 Parameters
x (
ndarray
) – Samples of shape (nb_samples). Note that, it is allowable that sequences in the batch could have different lengths. A possible example of x could be: x = np.ndarray([[0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.4], [0.3, 0.1]]).y (
ndarray
) – Target values of shape (nb_samples). Each sample in y is a string and it may possess different lengths. A possible example of y could be: y = np.array([‘SIXTY ONE’, ‘HELLO’]).batch_mode (
bool
) – If True calculate gradient per batch or otherwise per sequence.
 Returns
Loss gradients of the same shape as x.

property
model
¶ Return the model.
 Returns
The model.

predict
(x: numpy.ndarray, batch_size: int = 128, **kwargs) → Union[Tuple[numpy.ndarray, numpy.ndarray], numpy.ndarray]¶ Perform batchwise prediction for given inputs.
 Parameters
x (
ndarray
) – Samples of shape (nb_samples) with values in range [32768, 32767]. Note that it is allowable that sequences in the batch could have different lengths. A possible example of x could be: x = np.ndarray([[0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.4], [0.3, 0.1]]).batch_size (
int
) – Size of batches.
 Returns
Array of predicted transcriptions of shape (nb_samples). A possible example of a transcription return is np.array([‘SIXTY ONE’, ‘HELLO’]).

property
sess
¶ Get current TensorFlow session.
 Returns
The current TensorFlow session.

set_params
(**kwargs) → None¶ Take a dictionary of parameters and apply checks before setting them as attributes.
 Parameters
kwargs – A dictionary of attributes.
